It is mainly used for servers and networks, but in recent years has also expanded its desktop use.
Using the graphical interface, windows, and multitasking, it is much closer to the other operating systems.
Linux was originally developed by the Finnish engineer Linus Torvalds, the first cast appearing in 1991.
Now there are many Linux distributions: Ubuntu, Red Hat, Fedora, Debian, Linux Mint, Kali Linux and others, each user choosing the right distribution for their needs.
We can work with Linux OS in several ways:
- normal installation on a PC.
- installation in a virtual machine (VmWare or Virtual Box) that runs on another operating system.
- Live USB, where Linux boots from a bootable USB flash drive. It can also set up persistence so that any changes made to be saved on the USB flash when you shut down your PC.
Ubuntu is the most widely distributed Linux distribution. It looks great and it's free.
It includes a browser for internet navigation, multimedia applications, office applications and more. Its repository is very rich and using simple commands, you can quickly install many other programs.
And if we want to run Windows programs (which have not been developed for Linux), they can run on Linux using the Wine utility.
Regardless of how we want to use Ubuntu, the first step is to create a bootable USB stick.
First we will download the Ubuntu distribution (in .iso format), compatible with our PC.
As described in the section about USB stick bootable , take a USB stick of 8 Gb or more and use the free Rufus or Etcher software to copy the iso image from Ubuntu.
With the bootable Ubuntu stick, plug the USB stick from the PC, set the BIOS PC as the first boot option to be on USB and start the PC.
A window will appear asking if we want installation or just testing (Live Ubuntu on the USB stick).
Continue with the test (try Ubuntu) and open the graphical interface.
Now we can work with all the apps already installed. If we like how it looks and how it works, we can continue to install directly from Desktop by clicking on the Install Ubuntu icon.
Note that if our PC had Windows installed, and we only used the USB stick for testing (Try Ubuntu), disconnecting it and rebooting the PC, Windows remains intact.
After installing the Ubuntu distribution, it is recommended that you access the Ubuntu Software Center application:
We will check the Community-mentained free and open-source software option and click the Revert button. This will start the application update process.
Then we will open the terminal and update to the Ubuntu repository by typing:
sudo apt-get update
If we want to install the Chromium browser, we'll open the terminal and type:
sudo apt install chromium-browser
We will be able to start our Chromium browser by clicking on its icon or by typing in terminal:
Print screens automatically save images in .jpg format in the Pictures folder.
- Pressing Prt Scrn take a screenshot of the desktop.
- Pressing Alt + Prt Scrn, take a screenshot of the selected window.
- Pressing Shift + Prt Scrn, take a screenshot of the selected area.
Wine lets you run Windows programs in Ubuntu
Once downloaded the program for Windows, it will open with Wine (in Ubuntu), and run as in Windows.
To install Wine, open the terminal and type:
sudo apt install wine32
if your PC processor is running 32 bits, or
sudo apt install wine64
if your PC processor is running 64 bits.
After installation, we can check the version of the Wine application by typing in the terminal:
For those who have been excited about Ubuntu and who want to work in networking, they can also try Kali Linux, which besides the usual programs,
has many tools specifically designed to test communications network vulnerabilities.
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